Product quality parameters
General principles - unless defined otherwise
External visible surfaces
- Choice of blanks focuses on achieving a harmonious whole with a uniform color and structural / balanced distribution of allowed defects (applied even to rustic quality) where the most beautiful should be the front and top surfaces (chest doors, table tops, chest tops...), then the side surfaces.
- The area is composed of the material with the same or similar pattern / structure and color (tangential pattern with other tangential patterns, tangential pattern with semi-radial patterns and radial patterns with other radial and semi-radial ones).
- The less desirably-looking side of the blank is oriented to a less visible side of the panel / joint piece and after gluing, the desirably-looking side of the panels is oriented upwards.
- Cracked or visible knots and other acceptable defects of natural character, i.e. cracks in the surface, possible defects in processing, are repaired with dark sealant and treated with mastic in the color of wood (darker in cross-section, lighter on the longitudinal surfaces). Sealant in those areas must not be depressed.
- Knots and permissible defects must not be located on a visible edge. Sectioned knots are, save for the (R and R / C) rustic quality, inadmissible.
- In undefined cases we proceed in a way so as to achieve the best aesthetic result and we try to see the product through the customer's eyes.
Bottom / inner / invisible areas
- Inner / bottom visible surfaces (upper sides of the inner shelves, inner sides of side surfaces, bottom surfaces of tables and coffee tables, ...) - must be processed flawlessly (careful sealant filling and grinding) while always keeping an eye on how the side looks.
- Invisible bottom surfaces (bottom sides of parts, shelves, ...) - defects must be trimmed and ground.
Quality definition of panel sides and joint pieces
Javorina furniture quality class:
- A - structural and color uniformity, rare, up to 5 mm large eyelets of no more than 3 pcs / m2 evenly distributed, without sapwood spreading..
- B - selected by structure and color, unlimited eyelets, no more than 3 pcs / m2 of scattered knots allowed of max. 8-10 mm in diameter, rare spread of sapwood allowed, uniform distribution of permissible defects.
- C - eyelets, sapwood, healthy and protruding (but professionally repaired knots) up to 25 mm in diameter without limitation, rare bark ingrowth, cracks, pith spread allowed.
- B/C - visible, top / invisible, bottom.
- R - eyelets, unlimited knots, rare sapwood spread, bark ingrowth, cracks, traces of pith, heart rot allowed.
- RC - like R, but sapwood, pith, cracks allowed without limitation.
Deviations from the homogeneity of the wood surface
- Pith - the biological center. Remnant of primary extension of tree growth. It is mostly softer and often of a different color. Oak has a star-shaped pith.
- Sapwood - the sapwood zone function is to distribute water with dissolved minerals and to store supplies. The width of sapwood is closely related to the width of the crown. Oak sapwood is narrow, its yellow-brown color differs from the core, it is up to 5 cm wide.
- Sapwood residue - sapwood occurring only at the blank's corner (where the width area and the blank edge area meet), not over the entire area of the blank width.
- Planar sapwood - sapwood spreading across the entire blank width.
- Continuous sapwood - passes through the bottom, side and top surface of the blank.
- Knots - are the stems of live branches or branches that died out during the growth of the tree, enclosed in wood. We recognize joint, joint and cracked and protruding knots.
- Joint (healthy) knots are firmly cohesive with the surrounding material.
- Joint cracked knots are tightly cohesive with the surrounding material, but have a drying-induced crack as the wood of the knot is of a greater density and is more prone to drying than the surrounding material.
- Protruding (unhealthy) knots are not firmly cohesive with the surrounding material, which can cause drying and subsequent breakage of the branch during tree growth, after which it gradually rots and becomes buried underneath the trunk increments.
- Eyelet cluster (cat’s paws) - their function is horizontal distribution of organic substances in the trunk. They can be seen as lighter rays radiating from the pith or from the growth ring towards the trunk's circumference. On radial surfaces, they form wavy belt areas called mirrors. They are an integral part of oak wood.
- Pith rays - spread through the bottom, side and top area of the blank.
- Cracks - cracks in the wood occur during growth, logging and drying. The crack is a split of wood along its fibers. In products, they are acceptable up to 30 mm in length and at the hair breadth.
- Bark ingrowth - bark grown into the wood structure. It results from an injury and healing of a tree's open wound.
- Discoloration - change in color of the material's surface or its cross section. It may be caused by growth deviation, which is accompanied by a local change in the wood density (denser - darker, less dense - lighter) or when the tree, through its root system, received substances (minerals, salts, vertical change of substrate layers) during its growth that impacted the wood color resulting in its change.
- Thread - it is the local curvature of growth rings and fibers caused by the presence of knots or unevenly healed wounds. In sawn timber, we recognize a single-sided thread with growth rings cut on one edge only and a double-sided thread, where the growth rings of one and the same thread are cut on both edges, i.e. the growth ring ripple spreads across the entire width of a plank.
- Mushroom infestation - mushroom-induced defects are divided into fungi, cancer, sapwood coloration, heartwood coloration, and wood-destroying fungi.
- Mold - causes wood coloration in the form of stains or continuous coatings. The coloration may be green, green-blue, grey, pink and ruby.
- Cancer - infestation of a growing tree trunk by heavily parasitic fungi that are able to degrade even live wood and don't allow for wound healing. The wound stays open, grows, and the trunk forms a deeply scarred outgrowth.
- Mushroom-induced coloring - coloring caused in the first, so- called wood-staining stage of the impact of wood-destroying fungi. The defect is considered to be disturbing from aesthetic point of view rather than in terms of changing wood properties. Colors are typical for different kinds of wood and mushrooms.
- Wood-destroying fungi - among such known are cellulose eroding fungi (destructive decomposition) causing brown or red rot, ligno-eroding (corrosive decomposition) causing white rot, and a combination thereof.
- Rot - changes in color, structure, mechanical and physical properties of wood caused by fungi.
- Insect infestation - wood damage is caused mainly by insect larvae that feed on wood and bark.
- Muscle and cut fiber